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  • Writer's pictureGary Lougher

Reinvention, Not Resolutions, Day 17: The Existential Aspect of Deep Health

Today, we discuss the existential aspect of Deep Health. It's my favorite one because it's the most personal, and it's the space where we create possibilities for our lives and discover who we need to be to realize those possibilities.

You're free to define "existential" as you wish. I choose the following definition.

Existential - Involves exploring one's values, beliefs, and existential concerns and striving to find a sense of fulfillment, authenticity, and inner peace in the face of life's uncertainties and the search for meaning.

One of the things I try very hard to avoid when writing about these matters is coming across as being a finger-wagger telling people what they should do. It's exactly the opposite: I'm trying to make the case that you have enormous freedom in the design of your own life.

I also do not intend to imply that you "should" exercise that freedom. There are a lot of memes, people, books, schools, social media, marketers, etc., telling people to be all they can be. My issue with that is this: there are people who are perfectly content being convinced they shouldn't be. Only you know if you're happy/content/fulfilled, and if you are, that is AWESOME...don't allow people to convince you otherwise. It's your life.

But I work with and write for people who want more out of life, are discontent, or simply find joy in growth. If that's you, read on.

The last section of this post is a list of 323 different philosophies for living a good life. There are surely more and numerous ways these could be combined. I don't really intend for you to read them all, but I wanted to show the myriad ways humanity has discovered for leading a good life. And as you will see by browsing them, good can take on different meanings. Balanced, harmonious, peaceful, compassionate, forgiving, can decide what "living a good life" means.

As a first step, consider the following quote by civil rights leader Howard Thurman,

"Don't ask yourself what the world needs. Ask yourself what makes you come alive, and go do that, because what the world needs is people who have come alive."

What makes you come Alive? What a powerful question!

And in my opinion, that question can be asked at any stage of our lives. I'm asking my Little this weekend...he's 9. A lot of kids right now are busting their hump to go to college when that might not be what makes them come alive. Lots of kids play sports that don't make them come alive. It might make somebody else come alive, but that's not the point. Many people are stuck in jobs they hate because they're not living into that question. Lots of people retired from those jobs they couldn't stand are disillusioned because they are not asking that question. If you're inclined to do so, just ask yourself, "What Makes Me Feel Alive?". Then take one step into it, then another, then another. For me, that path seems to bring me closer and closer to who I really am. The "me" before I realized living the life I wanted was possible...society has a way of hiding that from us. As Ralph Waldo Emerson said,

“To be yourself in a world that is constantly trying to make you something else is the greatest accomplishment.”

The most common traits among most philosophies(see list at bottom of page) for living a good life are below.

  • Golden Rule: This is all about treating others how you'd like to be treated. It's a big thing in many beliefs, focusing on empathy, respect, and doing the right thing in our relationships.

  • Compassion and Kindness: Lots of teachings push for being compassionate and kind, really getting where others are coming from, and doing good things for them.

  • Honesty and Integrity: Being truthful and upstanding is a common thread. It means being straight in your actions and staying true to what you believe in.

  • Community and Social Harmony: Getting along with others, contributing to the community, and keeping peace in the family are key. It's about living together without conflict.

  • Self-Reflection and Improvement: Many philosophies and religions say it's important to look inward and constantly work on being a better version of yourself.

  • Moderation and Balance: Many traditions suggest living a balanced life, not going overboard with emotions, actions, or wants.

  • Respect for Life and the Environment: There's a general respect for all life forms and the planet, recognizing everything is connected and we should take care of our world.

  • Justice and Fairness: Fair play and justice in how we treat others and in society are big principles in many beliefs.

  • Gratitude and Contentment: Being thankful for what you have, instead of always wanting more, is a common theme.

  • Forgiveness and Reconciliation: The idea of forgiving people and fixing broken relationships is emphasized a lot.

  • Duty and Responsibility: Doing your bit for your family, society, or higher powers is seen as crucial for a good life.

  • Spiritual or Mindful Living: Focusing on your spiritual side or being mindful, connecting deeply with the bigger picture or your inner self, is a key aspect.

  • Non-Violence and Peace: Keeping peace and avoiding violence, in how we act and in resolving conflicts, is a shared belief.

  • Helping the Less Fortunate: Many philosophies and religions encourage helping those in need, whether through charity or social justice work.

  • Living in Harmony with Others: It's all about respecting different people, being tolerant, and living peacefully in a diverse world.

Notice they don't involve any special skills or education. But they do require character. Here is a link to an assessment that will help identify the character strengths most important to you => VIA Character Strengths Report  From their website, "Why Do Character Strengths Matter? Character strengths are the positive parts of your personality that make you feel authentic and engaged. You possess all 24 character strengths in different degrees, giving you a unique character strengths profile."

Below is PDF download of a "Philospher's Note" from Brian Johnson for the book Character Strengths Matter: How to Live a Full Life by Shannon Polly and Kathyryn Britton

Download PDF • 433KB

Here is a list of 323 philosophies for living a good life:

  1. Stoicism: While Stoicism is gaining popularity, it's still not mainstream. It teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means to overcome destructive emotions. The philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason (logos).

  2. Epicureanism: Often misunderstood as a pursuit of luxury and pleasure, Epicureanism is actually about finding happiness in simpler pleasures. It emphasizes friendship, a simple life, and the pursuit of intellectual pleasures over physical ones.

  3. Absurdism: Founded by Albert Camus, absurdism explores the conflict between human tendencies to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any in a chaotic, irrational universe. The solution is not despair but rather rebellion through enjoying life in spite of its absurdity.

  4. Taoism: This Eastern philosophy emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao, a principle that signifies the true nature of the world. It's about understanding and working with life’s natural flow, emphasizing simplicity, spontaneity, and compassion.

  5. Existentialism: This philosophy posits that individuals are free and responsible agents determining their own development through acts of the will. It emphasizes individual freedom, choice, and personal responsibility.

  6. Ubuntu: Originating from Southern Africa, Ubuntu is a philosophy that emphasizes community, sharing, and generosity. It's often translated as "I am because we are," and stresses the importance of community, compassion, and respect to others.

  7. Ikigai: A Japanese concept meaning "a reason for being." It’s about finding joy in life through purpose, be it through work, hobbies, or family. The idea is to find balance in different aspects of life.

  8. Wabi-Sabi: Another Japanese philosophy, wabi-sabi, is the art of finding beauty in imperfection and profundity in nature, of accepting the natural cycle of growth, decay, and death. It's about simplicity, modesty, and appreciating the imperfect and transient.

  9. Hygge: A Danish and Norwegian concept that cannot be translated to one single word but encompasses a feeling of cozy contentment and well-being through enjoying the simple things in life. It’s about finding happiness in the simple pleasures and making ordinary moments more meaningful.

  10. Santosha (Contentment in Hinduism): Santosha is a principle in Hinduism that encourages contentment and acceptance of one's situation. It's about finding happiness in what you have and where you are, rather than constantly seeking more.

  11. Lagom (Swedish Balance and Moderation): A Swedish concept meaning "just the right amount." Lagom promotes a balanced lifestyle, emphasizing moderation and sustainability. It's about living a life that's not too hectic but not too slow, finding a happy medium in all things.

  12. Sophrosyne (Ancient Greek Moderation): In ancient Greek philosophy, sophrosyne is a virtue denoting healthy-mindedness and balanced character, combining self-control, moderation, and awareness of one's true self.

  13. Bushido (The Way of the Warrior in Japan): Bushido, literally "the way of the warrior," is a Japanese philosophy that stresses loyalty, honor, martial arts mastery, and ethical behavior. While it originated with the samurai, its principles can apply to everyday life.

  14. Jugaad (Flexible Problem Solving in India): Jugaad is a colloquial Hindi term that roughly translates as an innovative fix or a simple work-around. It's a philosophy of resourcefulness and resilience, making do with what you have in challenging situations.

  15. Ubuntu (African Humanism): Different from the earlier mentioned Ubuntu, this is a pan-African philosophy that emphasizes community, sharing, and generosity. It’s about treating others with respect, kindness, and compassion, recognizing that we are all connected.

  16. Feng Shui (Chinese Harmonious Living): Feng Shui is an ancient Chinese art of arranging living spaces for optimal balance and harmony. It's about aligning one's environment to promote positive energy flow and balance.

  17. Zanshin (Japanese Mindfulness and Awareness): In Japanese martial arts, Zanshin means being aware of one's surroundings and enemies while being prepared to react. In everyday life, it translates to a state of relaxed alertness and readiness.

  18. Ho’oponopono (Hawaiian Practice of Reconciliation and Forgiveness): This Hawaiian practice involves the reconciliation and forgiveness between individuals. It's about making things right through mutual apology and forgiveness.

  19. Anicca (Buddhist Impermanence): Anicca is the Buddhist doctrine of impermanence. It's a fundamental principle that everything in life is transient and in constant flux. Understanding and accepting this can lead to a more peaceful and balanced life.

  20. Ikigai (Japanese Fulfillment and Purpose): Different from the previously mentioned Ikigai, this concept revolves around finding a purpose that brings joy and fulfillment, combining what you love, what you are good at, what the world needs, and what you can be paid for.

  21. Gemütlichkeit (German Coziness and Comfort): A German concept similar to Hygge, Gemütlichkeit is about creating a feeling of warmth, friendliness, and good cheer. Comfortable surroundings and the presence of friends and family contribute to this feeling.

  22. Ubuntu (Philosophy of Collective Success): A philosophy from Southern Africa, distinct from the previously mentioned Ubuntu, focusing on the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity. It emphasizes that an individual's success is reliant upon and contributes to the success of the community.

  23. Kaizen (Japanese Continuous Improvement): Kaizen is a philosophy of continuous improvement in work and personal life. It involves making small, incremental changes regularly to improve efficiency and quality.

  24. Sisu (Finnish Resilience and Determination): A Finnish concept that represents extraordinary determination, courage, and resolve in the face of extreme adversity. It's about facing challenges with bravery and tenacity.

  25. Satyagraha (Indian Principle of Nonviolent Resistance): Coined by Mahatma Gandhi, it's a philosophy that relies on nonviolent resistance to achieve political and social goals. It's about truth and firmness and is a powerful tool for social change.

  26. Mañana Habit (Latin American Relaxed Approach to Time): A cultural concept in some Latin American cultures characterized by a relaxed or indifferent attitude towards time, suggesting a slower pace of life and prioritizing present enjoyment over strict adherence to schedules.

  27. Jante Law (Nordic Humility and Equality): A concept originating in Scandinavia that emphasizes humility, simplicity, and equality. It criticizes individual success and achievement as unworthy and inappropriate.

  28. Ho‘ohana (Hawaiian Work Ethic and Purpose): This Hawaiian concept focuses on working with passion and purpose. It's about finding joy and fulfillment in one's work and contributing to the community.

  29. Sanuk (Thai Philosophy of Fun and Enjoyment in Life): In Thailand, the concept of Sanuk is about finding joy and pleasure in everything you do. It's the idea that life should be fun and enjoyable, even in routine tasks.

  30. Confucianism: Stresses the importance of morality, family, and social harmony.

  31. Buddhism: Centers on ending suffering through moral living, meditation, and wisdom.

  32. Taoism: Encourages living in harmony with the Tao (the Way).

  33. Aristotelian Ethics: Advocates moderate living and the pursuit of virtue.

  34. Christian Ethics: Emphasizes love, forgiveness, and living in accordance with Biblical teachings.

  35. Hinduism: Focuses on dharma (duty, righteousness), artha (prosperity), kama (desire), and moksha (liberation).

  36. Kantian Ethics: Proposes acting according to what could be a universal law.

  37. Humanism: Prioritizes human values and rationalism over religious belief.

  38. Platonism: Advocates for the discovery of eternal truths beyond material reality.

  39. Sikhism: Emphasizes honest living, equality, and remembering God.

  40. Jainism: Teaches non-violence, truth, and asceticism.

  41. Nihilism: Rejects all religious and moral principles, often questioning the meaning of life.

  42. Pragmatism: Suggests that truth is what works in practical terms.

  43. Transcendentalism: Highlights the inherent goodness of people and nature.

  44. Virtue Ethics: Focuses on developing virtuous character traits.

  45. Shintoism: Involves the worship of kami and rituals to keep harmony with nature.

  46. Zoroastrianism: Centers on the constant battle between truth and falsehood.

  47. Absurdism: Believes in the conflict between human tendencies to seek inherent value and the inability to find any in a chaotic world.

  48. Hedonism: Suggests that seeking pleasure is the most important goal in life.

  49. Socratic Method: Encourages gaining wisdom through questioning and dialogue.

  50. Pyrrhonism: Advocates for suspending beliefs to achieve peace of mind.

  51. Cynicism: Emphasizes living a life in accordance with nature and rejecting conventional desires for wealth, power, and fame.

  52. Pacifism: Believes in resolving conflicts without violence.

  53. Tawhid (Monotheism): The fundamental Islamic belief in the oneness of God (Allah).

  54. Secular Humanism: Emphasizes human reason and ethics without religious beliefs.

  55. Neo-Platonism: Combines the ideas of Plato with mysticism.

  56. Egoism: Argues that self-interest is the foundation of morality.

  57. Rationalism: Believes that reason is the chief source of knowledge.

  58. Empiricism: Suggests that knowledge comes primarily from sensory experience.

  59. Feminist Ethics: Focuses on how gender intersects with moral and ethical issues.

  60. Environmental Ethics: Advocates for the moral value of the environment and its inhabitants.

  61. Communitarianism: Emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community.

  62. Libertarianism: Advocates for maximum personal freedom and minimal government intervention.

  63. Anarchism: Rejects all forms of involuntary, coercive government.

  64. Altruism: The principle of considering the welfare and happiness of others before oneself.

  65. Minimalism: Advocates living simply and valuing experiences over possessions.

  66. Stoic Joy: Finding contentment and satisfaction in every situation.

  67. Objectivism: Proposes the pursuit of one's own happiness and rational self-interest.

  68. Carpe Diem: Encourages seizing the day and living life to the fullest.

  69. Moral Relativism: Believes moral principles are not absolute but vary with culture and context.

  70. Cosmopolitanism: Suggests all human beings belong to a single community.

  71. Pantheism: Identifies God with the universe, or regards the universe as a manifestation of God.

  72. Personalism: Emphasizes the moral worth of the person.

  73. Wabi-Sabi: A Japanese concept focusing on the acceptance of imperfection and transience.

  74. Ubuntu: An African philosophy that emphasizes community, sharing,

  75. Positive Psychology: Focuses on fostering positive qualities like happiness and resilience.

  76. Agnosticism: Believes that the truth about some matters, particularly religious claims, is unknown or unknowable.

  77. Deep Ecology: Views human life as just one aspect of a larger ecological system.

  78. Monism: Suggests reality is composed of a single, unifying substance or principle.

  79. Sufism: Islamic mysticism that emphasizes the inward search for God.

  80. Postmodernism: Questions the existence of any ultimate principles and stresses the complexity of knowledge and reality.

  81. Deontology: Ethics based on duty, rules, and obligation.

  82. Asceticism: Practices extreme self-discipline and abstention from indulgence.

  83. Solipsism: Believes that the self is all that can be known to exist.

  84. Gnosticism: Emphasizes personal spiritual knowledge over orthodox teachings, traditions, or the authority of the church.

  85. Animism: The belief that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.

  86. Rational Egoism: Argues for actions that maximize one's self-interest rationally.

  87. Process Philosophy: Views reality as a process of change and development.

  88. Mysticism: Pursues union with or absorption into the Deity, or the absolute, or spiritual apprehension of knowledge inaccessible to the intellect.

  89. Theravada Buddhism: Focuses on mindfulness and meditation, following the earliest Buddhist teachings.

  90. Relativism: Denies universal moral norms, suggesting that everything is relative and situational.

  91. Progressivism: Advocates for social reform and advancement through education, science, and technology.

  92. Dialectical Materialism: Marxist philosophy of nature and history as a dialectical process.

  93. Yoga Philosophy: Teaches the union of the individual consciousness with the universal consciousness.

  94. Neo-Confucianism: A revival of Confucian thought that incorporates Buddhist and Taoist elements.

  95. Juche: A North Korean ideology centered around self-reliance and independence.

  96. Epicurean Hedonism: Argues for the pursuit of refined and intellectual pleasures.

  97. Situation Ethics: Suggests moral decisions should be based on the context of a particular situation.

  98. Scientology: Modern movement that offers a path to spiritual enlightenment and self-knowledge.

  99. Spiritualism: Belief in the possibility of communication with the spirits of the dead.

  100. Perennial Philosophy: The notion that all world religions share a single, metaphysical truth or origin.

  101. Syncretism: The amalgamation of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought.

  102. Holism: Emphasizes the importance of the whole and the interdependence of its parts.

  103. Classical Liberalism: Advocates civil liberties and political freedom with representative democracy.

  104. Radical Feminism: Focuses on the patriarchal roots of inequality between men and women.

  105. Panentheism: Belief that God is greater than the universe and includes and interpenetrates it.

  106. Natural Law: The theory that certain rights or values are inherent by virtue of human nature.

  107. Orthodox Judaism: Adherence to the traditional interpretations and applications of Jewish law and teachings.

  108. Futurism: Envisions a future shaped by technological innovations and scientific breakthroughs.

  109. Vedanta: A major school of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation, morality, and the nature of reality.

  110. Materialism: Believes matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and all things, including mental states and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

  111. Reconstructionist Judaism: Modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization.

  112. Collectivism: Prioritizes group goals over individual ones.

  113. Idealism: Asserts that reality is mentally constructed or immaterial.

  114. Cultural Relativism: The view that ethical and social standards reflect the cultural context from which they are derived.

  115. Personal Development: Focuses on improving self-awareness, talents, and potential.

  116. Modernism: Embraces the changes brought by industrialization, technology, and societal changes.

  117. Secularism: Advocates for the separation of church and state and the exclusion of religious influence on governance.

  118. Panpsychism: The idea that mind or a mind-like aspect is a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of reality.

  119. Posthumanism: Envisions a future where humans transcend their biological limitations.

  120. Voluntarism: The principle that individuals have the freedom and will to make choices.

  121. Quietism: A Christian philosophy that advocates a life of inner peace and passivity.

  122. Structuralism: Analyzes cultural phenomena in terms of their broad structural relationships.

  123. Syntheism: The belief in a god or gods that are created by human beings.

  124. Neo-Vedanta: A modern interpretation of Hindu Vedanta that emphasizes universalism and human rights.

  125. Pessimism: Views life with a focus on the negative, often preparing for the worst.

  126. Romanticism: Values intense emotion and the beauty of nature and art.

  127. Digital Minimalism: Prioritizes focus and intention in digital consumption.

  128. Liberal Humanism: Advocates for individual rights, equality, and human dignity.

  129. Integral Theory: Combines science, spirituality, and psychology in a holistic framework.

  130. Logotherapy: Founded by Viktor Frankl, focuses on finding life's purpose and meaning.

  131. Scholasticism: Medieval system that sought to reconcile Christian theology with classical philosophy.

  132. Neo-Marxism: An updated form of Marxism that incorporates elements from other intellectual traditions.

  133. Afrocentrism: Emphasizes the history and culture of people of African descent.

  134. Surrealism: Encourages the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the irrational and the dream-like.

  135. Consequentialism: Judges actions by their outcomes or consequences.

  136. Biocentrism: Views all life forms as having an inherent value and rights.

  137. Post-Structuralism: Critiques and extends structuralism, especially in literary studies and anthropology.

  138. Rastafarianism: Focuses on the African diaspora, spirituality, and resistance to oppression.

  139. Cybernetics: Studies systems of control and communication in animals and machines.

  140. Queer Theory: Examines and challenges societal norms around gender and sexuality.

  141. Nordic Philosophy of Life: Emphasizes balance, well-being, and social equality.

  142. Critical Theory: Critiques society and culture by applying knowledge from social sciences and humanities.

  143. Ecofeminism: Connects environmentalism with feminism, advocating for the harmonious coexistence of all life forms.

  144. Baha'i Faith: Stresses the unity of all people and religions.

  145. Social Darwinism: Applies the concept of "survival of the fittest" to society and politics.

  146. Methodological Naturalism: Assumes that everything arises from natural properties and causes.

  147. Constructivism: Believes knowledge and reality are constructed through human activity.

  148. New Age Spirituality: Combines aspects of various spiritual and metaphysical beliefs.

  149. Deconstruction: Analyzes texts to expose assumptions and contradictions.

  150. Subsistence Living: Focuses on self-sufficiency and minimal consumption.

  151. Green Politics: Advocates for environmental protection and sustainable living.

  152. Anarcho-Primitivism: Advocates for a return to non-'civilized' ways of life.

  153. Orthopraxy: Emphasizes correct practice or action over belief or faith.

  154. Radical Constructivism: Views knowledge as constructed by an individual based on their experiences.

  155. Phenomenology: Studies the structures of experience and consciousness.

  156. Religious Humanism: Combines humanist ethical philosophy with congregational rituals and community.

  157. Ethical Subjectivism: Believes moral judgments are expressions of one's personal feelings.

  158. Socratic Wisdom: Acknowledging one's own ignorance in the pursuit of truth.

  159. Atheistic Existentialism: Emphasizes individual freedom and choice in a godless universe.

  160. Postcolonialism: Critiques the cultural legacies of colonialism and imperialism.

  161. Antinatalism: The view that bringing new people into existence is morally problematic.

  162. Moral Realism: Believes in moral facts that are true independently of what anyone thinks.

  163. Nativism: Prioritizes the needs and culture of native inhabitants over immigrants.

  164. Narrative Ethics: Views ethical understanding as derived from stories and personal narratives.

  165. Value Pluralism: The idea that there are several values which may be equally correct and fundamental.

  166. Neohumanism: Expands humanism to include the welfare of all living beings.

  167. Theism: Belief in the existence of a god or gods, especially a personal god.

  168. Pantheism: Identifies the universe or nature with God.

  169. Legalism: In Chinese philosophy, a system that emphasizes strict adherence to laws.

  170. Mimamsa: A school of Hindu philosophy focused on ritual action and exegesis of sacred texts.

  171. Caste Ethics: Traditional Indian approach where moral duties are determined by one's social class or caste.

  172. Psychological Egoism: The view that humans are always motivated by self-interest.

  173. Social Ecology: Views ecological problems as arising from social hierarchies and human domination.

  174. Aestheticism: Emphasizes beauty and artistic pursuits over practical, political, or moral goals.

  175. Agnostic Theism: Believes in the existence of a higher power but deems its nature as unknowable.

  176. Animist Realism: Sees the world as full of animate, spiritual beings, including non-human entities.

  177. Anthropocentrism: Considers human beings as the most important entity in the universe.

  178. Anti-Consumerism: Advocates for a reduction in consumption and a focus on sustainability.

  179. Atheistic Naturalism: Denies the existence of deities and supernatural beings, focusing on the natural world.

  180. Casuistry: Applies case-based reasoning to moral problems, emphasizing practical applications over theory.

  181. Classical Realism: In international relations, views states as primarily concerned with power and security.

  182. Communalism: Advocates for a society where the means of production are communally owned.

  183. Compatibilism: Believes that free will and determinism are compatible ideas.

  184. Conservative Humanism: Stresses traditional humanist principles within a conservative political framework.

  185. Cosmicism: Suggests that human concerns are insignificant in the vast, indifferent universe.

  186. Critical Realism: A philosophy that combines a general philosophy of science with a moral philosophy.

  187. Cultural Materialism: Analyzes cultural and historical data within the context of materialistic conditions.

  188. Dharma Worldview: In Hinduism and Buddhism, focuses on living in accordance with Dharma, or cosmic law and order.

  189. Dualism: Believes in the existence of two fundamental and irreducible substances or principles.

  190. Eco-Anarchism: Combines anarchism with environmentalism, advocating for a society in harmony with nature.

  191. Eco-Socialism: Advocates for a society that is both ecologically sustainable and socialist.

  192. Empiricist Epistemology: Asserts that knowledge comes primarily from sensory experience.

  193. Ethical Altruism: Prioritizes the well-being and interests of others in moral decision-making.

  194. Ethical Intuitionism: Believes that moral truths are known through intuitive understanding.

  195. Experientialism: Values personal experience as the primary source of knowledge and truth.

  196. Fatalism: The belief that all events are predetermined and therefore inevitable.

  197. Feminist Environmentalism: Connects ecological concerns with feminist principles.

  198. Gandhian Philosophy: Based on the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi, focusing on truth, non-violence, and simplicity.

  199. Hard Determinism: The belief that human behavior and actions are wholly determined by external factors.

  200. Historicism: The theory that social and cultural phenomena are historically determined and that each period has its own values and beliefs.

  201. Holistic Health: Views health as a balance of physical, mental, spiritual, and social well-being.

  202. Humanistic Psychology: Emphasizes the study of the whole person and the uniqueness of each individual.

  203. Inclusive Democracy: Advocates for direct democracy in all aspects of social life.

  204. Indigenous Philosophies: Various beliefs and practices of native peoples emphasizing harmony with nature and ancestral wisdom.

  205. Instrumentalism: Suggests that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments in understanding the world.

  206. Integralism: Seeks to integrate knowledge from diverse fields into a coherent whole.

  207. Jain Ethics: Emphasizes non-violence, truthfulness, and ascetic practices.

  208. Karma Yoga: In Hinduism, the path of unselfish action and service.

  209. Legal Positivism: Sees law as a social construction, distinct from moral judgments.

  210. Libertarian Socialism: Advocates for a non-hierarchical society and the abolition of private property.

  211. Marxist Feminism: Combines feminist theory with Marxist critiques of capitalist society.

  212. Material Feminism: Examines the material conditions underpinning gender inequality.

  213. Matriarchal Studies: Explores societies organized around maternal principles and structures.

  214. Moderate Realism: A philosophical stance positing that universals exist, but only in particular things.

  215. Moral Absolutism: The belief in absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged.

  216. Moral Particularism: Holds that moral judgments are determined by relevant contextual factors.

  217. Moral Skepticism: Questions the existence of moral knowledge or objective moral truths.

  218. Multiculturalism: Advocates for the preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within a unified society.

  219. Naturalistic Pantheism: Views nature and the universe as an all-encompassing, sacred entity.

  220. Neo-Existentialism: A modern form of existentialism focusing on personal authenticity in a technologically advanced world.

  221. Neo-Luddism: Critiques the blind acceptance of technological advances, advocating for a return to simpler, more sustainable practices.

  222. New Confucianism: A modern revival of Confucianism, emphasizing moral self-cultivation and social harmony.

  223. Non-Dualism: Believes in the fundamental oneness of the universe, transcending all apparent differences and distinctions.

  224. Panentheistic Naturalism: Combines naturalism with a belief that the divine pervades all aspects of the natural world.

  225. Participatory Democracy: Advocates for direct involvement of citizens in political decisions.

  226. Pastoralism: Emphasizes the value of a rural lifestyle and the connection to nature.

  227. Perceptualism: The belief that perception is the primary source of knowledge.

  228. Perennialism in Education: Advocates teaching from a universal, timeless set of principles.

  229. Personalist Epistemology: Emphasizes the subjective, personal aspects of knowledge.

  230. Physicalism: The doctrine that everything is physical and there are no non-physical entities.

  231. Pluralistic Ignosticism: The view that different religious and metaphysical propositions are so vastly different that each must be approached differently.

  232. Polymath Studies: Encourages interdisciplinary learning and the development of multiple areas of expertise.

  233. Post-Humanist Feminism: Questions traditional humanism and feminism, focusing on technology's role in defining humanity.

  234. Post-Materialism: Prioritizes cultural and spiritual needs over material wealth.

  235. Post-Modernist Christianity: Applies postmodern philosophy to Christian theology and practice.

  236. Practical Idealism: Combines idealistic and pragmatic elements in approaching problems and solutions.

  237. Pragmatic Ethics: Bases moral judgments on the practical consequences of actions.

  238. Prefigurative Politics: Advocates for practicing the desired changes, instead of waiting for political reform.

  239. Presuppositionalism: Asserts that all belief systems are based on presuppositions that are not provable.

  240. Process Theology: Views God and the universe as dynamic, evolving processes.

  241. Progressive Christianity: Emphasizes social justice, inclusivity, and environmental responsibility.

  242. Psychoanalytic Theory: Focuses on the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior and society.

  243. Radical Democracy: Advocates for the transformation of society through broad-based, grassroots involvement.

  244. Rational Mysticism: Seeks to reconcile mystical experiences with rational understanding.

  245. Realistic Idealism: Balances idealistic goals with a realistic understanding of what is achievable.

  246. Reconstructionist Paganism: Modern, nature-based spirituality rooted in ancient pagan beliefs.

  247. Regenerative Culture: Promotes practices that restore and renew environmental and social systems.

  248. Relational Ethics: Emphasizes relationships and responsibilities in ethical considerations.

  249. Religious Naturalism: Finds religious meaning in the natural world without supernatural beliefs.

  250. Religious Pluralism: Recognizes the diversity of religious beliefs and accepts multiple paths to spirituality.

  251. Renaissance Humanism: Emphasizes the value and agency of human beings and classical antiquity.

  252. Resilience Theory: Focuses on the ability to recover from setbacks and adapt to change.

  253. Restorative Justice: Seeks to repair the harm caused by criminal behavior through reconciliation.

  254. Ritualism: Places significance on the performance of ritual as a means to spiritual or ethical goals.

  255. Romantic Rationalism: Combines the emotional depth of romanticism with rational thought.

  256. Sacred Activism: Combines spiritual practice with activism for social and ecological justice.

  257. Scientific Pantheism: Reveres and respects the universe and nature as the equivalent of divinity.

  258. Secular Buddhism: Interprets Buddhist teachings in a secular, non-religious context.

  259. Secular Ethics: Develops ethical systems independent of religious or supernatural beliefs.

  260. Self-Realization: Emphasizes personal growth and fulfillment as key life goals.

  261. Sensism: The theory that sensations are the only reliable source of knowledge.

  262. Situational Ethics: Asserts that moral decisions should be based on the specifics of each situation.

  263. Social Anarchism: Advocates for a society organized around voluntary associations without government.

  264. Social Contract Theory: Views the moral and political obligations as based upon a contract among individuals.

  265. Social Individualism: Balances individual rights and interests with the welfare of the community.

  266. Social Intuitionism: Suggests that moral judgments are often the results of intuitive processes.

  267. Solastalgia: The distress caused by environmental change impacting on people while they are directly connected to their home environment.

  268. Soteriological Pluralism: Belief in the possibility of salvation or liberation in many different forms and practices.

  269. Speculative Realism: Challenges the dominance of philosophical 'correlationism' - the idea that there is a correlation between the human mind and the world.

  270. Spiritual Naturalism: Combines naturalistic and spiritual approaches to understand the world.

  271. Stateless Socialism: Advocates for a non-governmental form of socialism.

  272. Structural Functionalism: Views society as a complex system with interdependent parts.

  273. Syncretic Spirituality: Combines elements from different religious traditions for an inclusive approach to spirituality.

  274. Techno-Optimism: Believes in the potential of technology to improve the human condition.

  275. Theological Noncognitivism: The position that religious language, particularly theological terms, are not cognitively meaningful.

  276. Therapeutic Moralism: Focuses on moral and ethical living as a form of personal therapy or improvement.

  277. Transhumanism: Advocates for the enhancement of human capabilities through advanced technology.

  278. Ubiquitism: The belief that divine presence is everywhere and in all things.

  279. Universal Unitarianism: A liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning."

  280. Utopian Socialism: Envisions an ideal society free from poverty and suffering.

  281. Value Theory in Economics: Analyzes the basis of value judgments in economic behaviors.

  282. Virtue Signaling: Publicly expressing opinions or sentiments to demonstrate one's good character or social conscience.

  283. Voluntary Simplicity: Choosing to minimize and simplify one's life in pursuit of more meaningful experiences.

  284. Welfarism: Focuses on the welfare and well-being of individuals or communities.

  285. Western Marxism: A form of Marxist theory that emphasizes culture and ideology.

  286. Wisdom Tradition: Emphasizes practical wisdom and ethical living drawn from various religious and philosophical traditions.

  287. Workerism: Advocates for workers' rights and the centrality of the working class in societal change.

  288. Xenial Philosophy: Values hospitality and the respectful treatment of guests or strangers.

  289. Youth Liberation: Advocates for the rights and agency of young people.

  290. Zeteticism: Advocates for a skeptical approach to inquiry, emphasizing open exploration over conclusions.

  291. Acosmism: Believes in the transcendence of the universe by identifying it as illusory or non-existent in its own right.

  292. Agapeism: Ethical theory emphasizing love, charity, and a selfless concern for others.

  293. Anti-Fatalism: Rejects the idea that the future is predetermined and unchangeable.

  294. Barefoot Philosophy: Advocates for a simple, natural lifestyle, often connected with environmentalism and minimalism.

  295. Chaos Theory in Ethics: Applies concepts of chaos and unpredictability to ethical decision-making.

  296. Civic Humanism: Emphasizes active participation in public affairs and the common good.

  297. Classical Eudaimonism: Focuses on achieving happiness and well-being through virtuous living.

  298. Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) Philosophy: Advocates for community-engaged, locally supported farming.

  299. Conservation Ethics: Prioritizes the preservation and protection of the natural environment.

  300. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism: Combines a global perspective with utilitarian principles.

  301. Critical Pedagogy: Views education as a means to challenge and change societal structures.

  302. Cultural Pragmatism: Emphasizes practical and cultural considerations in philosophical and ethical decisions.

  303. Cyberphilosophy: Explores philosophical aspects of the digital age and technology.

  304. Decentralism: Advocates for the reduction of central authority in favor of local autonomy.

  305. Dialectical Monism: Sees reality as a unified whole expressing itself in dialectical contradictions.

  306. Digital Nomadism: Advocates for a lifestyle enabled by technology, emphasizing flexibility, travel, and remote work.

  307. Eco-Gastronomy: Promotes a sustainable and ethical approach to food production and consumption.

  308. Egalitarianism in Resource Distribution: Advocates for equal access and distribution of resources.

  309. Embodied Philosophy: Emphasizes the importance of the body in understanding human experience and cognition.

  310. Emotional Intelligence Theory: Highlights the importance of recognizing and managing emotions in oneself and others.

  311. Environmental Justice: Seeks equitable access to a clean environment for all people.

  312. Epistemic Injustice: Addresses the wrong done to someone in their capacity as a knower.

  313. Ethical Egoism in Business: Advocates that businesses should act in their own self-interest.

  314. Ethical Relationalism: Suggests that ethical truths depend on relationships between people.

  315. Existential Nihilism: Believes that life has no intrinsic meaning or value.

  316. Experiential Environmentalism: Advocates for environmental protection through direct experience of nature.

  317. Feminist Ethics of Care: Emphasizes caring and nurturing relationships in ethical considerations.

  318. Global Citizenship: Views individuals as members of a global community with responsibilities beyond national borders.

  319. Green Anarchism: Combines environmentalism with anarchism, advocating for a society in harmony with nature.

  320. Hedonic Adaptation Prevention: Focuses on ways to continuously derive pleasure and satisfaction despite habituation.

  321. Hermetic Philosophy: Emphasizes esoteric wisdom, alchemy, and the discovery of the divine.

  322. Humanistic Legal Theory: Views laws in the context of human values and dignity.

  323. Ideal Observer Theory: Suggests that ethical truths depend on the perspective of a hypothetical impartial observer.

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